Treaty Elders of Saskatchewan

"It is my hope, and the hope of the Office of the Treaty Commissioner, that this publication can help provide the historical context needed to intelligently and respectfully forge new relations between First Nations people and non-Aboriginal people in the province of Saskatchewan. It has already done so, in part, by facilitating the work of our office in bringing together the parties of the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations and Canada to reach common understandings and to use the Treaties as a bridge from the past to the future ... so that we can learn from the past and work together towards a future built on co-operation and mutual respect." Judge David M. Arnot, Treaty Commissioner for Saskatchewan

"We were told that these treaties were to last forever. The government and the government officials, the Commissioner, told us that, as long as the grass grows, and the sun rises from the east and sets in the west, and the river flows, these treaties will last." Treaty 6 Elder Alma Kytwayhat

"We say it's our Father; the White man says "our Father" in his language, so from there we should understand that he becomes our brother and we have to live harmoniously with him. There should not be any conflict, we must uphold the word 'witaskewin,' which means to live in peace and harmony with one another." Elder Jacob Bill

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Treaty Elders of Saskatchewan 1
Table of Contents 6
Foreword 8
Preface 10
Context 12
The Starting Point for Treaty Discussions 14
Shared First Nations Foundations 20
lyiniw sawêyihtâkosiwin (The Peoples' Sacred Gifts) 21
Miyo-wîcêhtowin (The Principle of Getting Along Well with Others, Good Relations, Expanding the Circle) 25
Wiyôhtâwîmâw (The Divine Father) 29
Miskâsowin (Finding One's Sense of Origin and Belonging, Finding "One's Self" or Finding "One's Centre") 32
Kihci-asotamâtowin (Sacred Promises to One Another, The Treaty Sovereigns' Sacred Undertakings) 36
Wîtaskêwin (Living Together on the Land) 50
Pimâcihowin (Making a Living) 54
Tâpwêwin (Speaking the Truth or Speaking with Precision and Accuracy) 59
Askîwipimâcihowascikêwina (Setting into Place Arrangements for Livelihood, Living and Evolving Treaty Rights) 71
Conclusion: "... so that they may have a good future" 79
Notes 83
Glossary of Terms 89
A 89
D 89
E 89
K 89
I 89
N 90
O 90
P 90
M 90
S 91
T 91
Y 91
W 91
Bibliography 92